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Facts about Federal Republic of Nigeria

Dec 5 '15 | By La Afrique Media | Views: 68 | Comments: 0
CAPITAL: Abuja<br />
FLAG: The national flag consists of three<br />
vertical stripes. The green outer stripes<br />
represent Nigerian agriculture. The white center<br />
stripe represents unity and peace.<br />
ANTHEM: Arise, All Compatriots.<br />
MONETARY UNIT: On 1 January 1973, the<br />
Nigerian pound (n£) was replaced by the naira<br />
(n) of 100 kobo at a rate of n2 = n£1. There are<br />
coins of ½, 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 kobo and 1<br />
naira, and notes of 5, 10, 20, and 50 naira. n1 =<br />
$0.00754 (or $1 = n132.59) as of 2005.<br />
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES: As of May 1975, the<br />
metric system is the official standard, replacing<br />
the imperial measures.<br />
HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; National<br />
Day, 1 October; Christmas, 25 December;<br />
Boxing Day, 26 December. Movable Christian<br />
religious holidays include Good Friday and<br />
Easter Monday; movable Muslim religious<br />
holidays include 'Id al-Fitr, 'Id al-'Adha', and<br />
Milad an-Nabi.<br />
TIME: 1 pm = noon GMT.<br />
LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT<br />
Located at the extreme inner corner of the Gulf<br />
of Guinea on the west coast of Africa, Nigeria<br />
occupies an area of 923,768 sq. km (356,669<br />
sq mi), extending 1,127 km (700 mi) e–w and<br />
1,046 km (650 mi) n–s. Comparatively, the area<br />
occupied by Nigeria is slightly more than twice<br />
the size of the state of California. It is<br />
bordered by Chad on the NE, by Cameroon on<br />
the e, by the Atlantic Ocean (Gulf of Guinea) on<br />
the s, by Benin (formerly Dahomey) on the w,<br />
and by Niger on the nw and n, with a total<br />
boundary length of 4,900 km (3,045 mi), of<br />
which 853 km (530 mi) is coastline. The borders<br />
between Nigeria and Chad and Nigeria and<br />
Cameroon are disputed, and there have been<br />
occasional border clashes.<br />
Nigeria's capital city, Abuja, is located in the<br />
center of the country.<br />
TOPOGRAPHY<br />
Along the entire coastline of Nigeria lies a belt<br />
of mangrove swamp forest from 16 to 96 km<br />
(10–60 mi) in width, which is intersected by<br />
branches of the Niger and innumerable other<br />
smaller rivers and creeks. Beyond the swamp<br />
forest is a zone, from 80 to 160 km (50–100<br />
mi) wide, of undulating tropical rain forest. The<br />
country then rises to a plateau at a general<br />
elevation of about 600 m (2,000 ft) but reaches<br />
a maximum of 2,042 m (6,700 ft) on the<br />
eastern border in the Shebshi Mountains, and<br />
the vegetation changes from woodland to<br />
savanna, with thick forest in the mountains. In<br />
the extreme north, the country approaches the<br />
southern part of the Sahara.<br />
The Niger, the third-largest river of Africa,<br />
enters Nigeria from the northwest and runs in a<br />
southeasterly direction, meeting its principal<br />
tributary, the Benue, at Lokoja, about 550 km<br />
(340 mi) from the sea. It then flows south to<br />
the delta, through which it empties into the<br />
Gulf of Guinea via numerous channels. Other<br />
main tributaries of the Niger are the Sokoto and<br />
Kaduna rivers. The second great drainage<br />
system of Nigeria flows north and east from<br />
the central plateau and empties into Lake Chad.<br />
Kainji Lake, in the northwest, was created by<br />
construction of a dam on the Niger above<br />
Jebba.<br />
CLIMATE<br />
Although Nigeria lies wholly within the tropical<br />
zone, there are wide climatic variations in<br />
different regions of the country. Near the<br />
coast, the seasons are not sharply defined.<br />
Temperatures rarely exceed 32°c (90°f), but<br />
humidity is very high and nights are hot. Inland,<br />
there are two distinct seasons: a wet season<br />
from April to October, with generally lower<br />
temperatures, and a dry season from<br />
November to March, with midday temperatures<br />
that surpass 38°c (100°f) but relatively cool<br />
nights, dropping as low as 12°c (54°f). On the<br />
Jos Plateau, temperatures are more moderate.<br />
Average rainfall along the coast varies from<br />
about 180 cm (70 in) in the west to about 430<br />
cm (170 in) in certain parts of the east. Inland,<br />
it decreases to around 130 cm (50 in) over<br />
most of central Nigeria and only 50 cm (20 in)<br />
in the extreme north.<br />
Two principal wind currents affect Nigeria. The<br />
harmattan, from the northeast, is hot and dry<br />
and carries a reddish dust from the desert; it<br />
causes high temperatures during the day and<br />
cool nights. The southwest wind brings cloudy<br />
and rainy weather.<br />
FLORA AND FAUNA
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